### Fundamentals of p-values: Introduction

#### Abstract

We explain the concept of p-values presupposing only rudimentary probability theory. We also use the occasion to introduce the notion of p-function, so that p-values are values of a p-function.

The explanation is restricted to the discrete case with no outcomes of zero probability. We are going to address the general case elsewhere.

The explanation is restricted to the discrete case with no outcomes of zero probability. We are going to address the general case elsewhere.

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